Muhammad Furqan Akhtar*, Syed Ahmad Raza, Ammara Saleem*, Irfan Hamid, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Ali Sharif, Kashif Sohail, Zeeshan Javaid, Uzma Saleem and Azhar Rasul Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )
Background: Peganum harmala is traditionally used to manage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory conditions. However, its use against RA has not been scientifically evaluated. The current study was designed to assess the anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of P. harmala leaves by in vitro and in vivo methods.
Methods: The in vitro assays were carried out to determine the effect of plant extract on inhibition of egg albumin denaturation and human red blood cell membrane (HRBC) stabilization. Moreover, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity was performed to determine the antioxidant potential. In vivo anti-arthritic activity was performed by determining the curative effect against Complete Freund’s adjuvant (0.1 ml). The plant extract was administered to rats orally at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg/day for 21 days.
Results: The values of IC50 of plant extract in protein denaturation, stabilization of HRBC and DPPH assays were 77.54 mg/ml, 23.90 mg/ml and 58.09 µg/ml respectively. Moreover, the plant extract significantly attenuated the poly-arthritis and weight loss, anemia and paw edema. The plant extract restored the level of C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in poly-arthritic rats. Moreover, the plant extract restored the immune organs weight in treated rats. Treatment with P. harmala also significantly subdued the oxidative stress by reinstating superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde in poly-arthritic rats. The plant extract notably restored the prostaglandin-E2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the serum of poly-arthritic rats.
Conclusion: It was concluded that P. harmala extract had potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities which primarily might be attributed to alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.
Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, complete Freund’s adjuvant, Peganum harmala
Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore Campus, Lahore, , Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore Campus, Lahore, , Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, , Cadson College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Kharian, , School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, , Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Allied Health Sciences, Lahore, College for Women University, Jail Road, Lahore, Akson College of Health Sciences, Mirpur University of Science and technology, Mirpur, AJK, , Akson College of Health Sciences, Mirpur University of Science and technology, Mirpur, AJK, , Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, , Department of Zoology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad