Tapan Behl*, Thirumurthy Velpandian and Anita Kotwani Pages 1053 - 1065 ( 13 )
Objective and Background: Diabetic retinopathy is amongst the most common microvascular complications associated with diabetes. Controlling blood glucose level alone cannot manage diabetes associated complications. Thus, mechanisms that additionally prevent diabetes associated complications are the need of the hour, driving the researchers towards herbal therapies. Terminalia catappa is renowned for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-angiogenic activity. The current study explores the effect of Terminalia catappa fruit extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats.Methods: Streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetic rat model was utilized in the study. The hydroalcoholic fruit extract of T. catappa in 20mg/kg, 30mg/kg and 40mg/kg dose and standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide (10mg/kg) was given orally. Retinopathy was evaluated by monitoring lenticular, fundus images and measuring arteriole and venule tortuosity index. Oxidative, angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at the 12th week in the retinal homogenate. Histopathological changes in the retina were also examined. Data was analyzed using one-way Repeated Measure ANOVA followed by the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of T. catappa significantly decreased blood glucose (p<0.001) in a dose-dependent manner in diabetic rats. Cataract lens was observed in all experimental groups and became clear (grade 0) with 40mg/kg and with 40mg/kg along with glibenclamide at the eighth and sixth week, respectively. The hydro-alcoholic fruit extract in all three doses significantly reduced (p<0.01) arteriole and venule tortuosity in diabetic rats. T. catappa in all three doses in diabetic rats showed a modulatory effect in oxidative, angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusion: T. catappa reverses diabetes-induced retinopathy by anti-hyperglycemic, anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory actions, and thus has a potential to be used in diabetes-induced retinopathy.
Diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, Terminalia catappa, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress.
Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, Department of Ocular Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Department of Pharmacology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi