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Maternal Sodium Valproate Exposure Alters Neuroendocrine-Cytokines and Oxido-inflammatory Axes in Neonatal Albino Rats

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 8 ]

Author(s):

Neama A-G, El-bakry AM, Rasha EH and RG Ahmed*   Pages 1491 - 1503 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the influence of maternal sodium valproate (SVP) on neonatal neuroendocrine (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; HPA)-cytokines and oxido-inflammatory axes.

Methods: Pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orally administered (by gavage) SVP (50 mg/kg) from gestation day (GD) 8 to lactation day (LD) 21.

Results: The elevation in serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), corticosterone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels was highly significant at postnatal days (PNDs) 14 and 21 in both dams and neonates of the maternal SVP-treated group relative to those in the control group. However, hypercortisolism (cortisolemia) was highly significant in neonates at both PNDs 14 and 21, while in dams, it was not significantly increased at LD 14 but was at LD 21. This disruption caused adverse effects on maternal food consumption and maternal/neonatal body weight. The maternal SVP treatment resulted in higher levels of neonatal serum adrenaline, noradrenaline, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-17, IL-4, IL-6 & IL-2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and lower levels of neonatal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and adiponectin at both PNDs. This administration also induced the oxidative stress in neonatal cerebrum and cerebellum at both tested PNDs via the production of free radicals (malondialdehyde; MDA & nitric oxide; NO) and reduction of antioxidant parameters (glutathione; GSH, superoxide dismutase; SOD & catalase; CAT).

Conclusion: Maternal SVP treatment stimulated the neonatal stress-brain (HPA) axis, resulted in an oxido-inflammatory state, and disrupted the neuroendocrine-cytokines axis, and generally neonatal health.

Keywords:

Sodium valproate, adrenal, brain, cytokines, dams, neonates.

Affiliation:

Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef

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