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Venoms and poisonings during the centuries. A narrative review.

Author(s):

Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Roberto Gagliano-Candela, Luigi Santacroce* and Lucrezia Bottalico   Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Suffice it to say that the first traces of its use by man date back to ten thousand years ago the venom or poison since the last period of the Paleolithic man used poison to hunt and for defence. Indeed, in the second half of the 19th century, was found in some caves arrows made from the bones of animals characterized by particular grooves. In ancient Greece, the term pharmakon (φάρμακον) had a double meaning: remedy for therapy and venom. This is the period in which we become aware of the fact that a poison cannot be defined only as a substance capable of changing the properties of things. The poisonings are very frequent in the history of the Roman Empire and later in the Renaissance and the modern era. Poison was the protagonist political intrigues of power and is one of the most used lethal weapons over the years. Optimal solution for a perfect murder, the poison has a long history. Its success is due to the invisible and often unpunished death.

Keywords:

Poisonings, venoms, intoxication, toxics, history of medicine, ancient drugs, antidotes, chemicals, crimes, terrorism, forensic medicine

Affiliation:

CEDICLO – Interdepartmental Research Center for Pre-Latin, Latin and Oriental Rights and Culture Studies, University of Bari, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Service of Forensic Toxicology, University of Bari, Italy; 3 Ionian Department (DISGEM), University of Bari, CEDICLO – Interdepartmental Research Center for Pre-Latin, Latin and Oriental Rights and Culture Studies, University of Bari, CEDICLO – Interdepartmental Research Center for Pre-Latin, Latin and Oriental Rights and Culture Studies, University of Bari



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