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Application of Flow Cytometry in Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Reza Yazdani, Asghar Aghamohammadi and Nima Rezaei*   Pages 647 - 663 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs), consisting of recurrent infections, autoimmunity, inflammation, and other immune complications. In the recent years, several immunological and genetic defects have been recognized in PADs. Currently, 45 distinct PAD disorders with 40 different genetic defects have been identified based on the 2019 IUIS classification. Genetic analysis is helpful for diagnosing PIDs; however, genetic studies are expensive, time-consuming, and unavailable everywhere. Flow cytometry is a highly sensitive tool for evaluating the immune system and diagnosing PADs. In addition to cell populations and subpopulations assay, flow cytometry can measure cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biological changes associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune abnormalities. These capabilities help in rapid diagnostic and prognostic assessment as well as in evaluating the pathogenesis of PADs. For the first time, this review particularly provides an overview of the application of flow cytometry for diagnosis, immunophenotyping, and determining the pathogenesis of PADs.

Keywords:

Predominantly antibody deficiencies, flow cytometry, diagnosis, phenotyping, pathogenesis, primary immunodeficiency.

Affiliation:

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran

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