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Prostate Carcinogenesis: Insights in Relation to Epigenetics and Inflammation

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Mirazkar D. Pandareesh*, Vivek H. Kameshwar and Kullaiah Byrappa   Pages 253 - 267 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Prostate cancer is a multifactorial disease that mainly occurs due to the accumulation of somatic, genetic, and epigenetic changes, resulting in the inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Mutations in genes, specifically those that control cell growth and division or the repair of damaged DNA, make the cells grow and divide uncontrollably to form a tumor. The risk of developing prostate cancer depends upon the gene that has undergone the mutation. Identifying such genetic risk factors for prostate cancer poses a challenge for the researchers. Besides genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation, and phosphorylation) nucleosomal remodeling, and chromosomal looping, have significantly contributed to the onset of prostate cancer as well as the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of prostate cancer. Chronic inflammation also plays a major role in the onset and progression of human cancer, via modifications in the tumor microenvironment by initiating epithelialmesenchymal transition and remodeling the extracellular matrix. In this article, the authors present a brief history of the mechanisms and potential links between the genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes, inflammation, and inflammasomes that are known to contribute to the prognosis of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the authors examine and discuss the clinical potential of prostate carcinogenesis in relation to epigenetics and inflammation for its diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords:

Prostate cancer, epigenetics, DNA modification, histone modification, inflammation, inflammasomes.

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, BGSIT Campus, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara, Mandya District, Karnataka 571448, Center for Research and Innovation, BGSIT Campus, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara, Mandya District, Karnataka 571448, Center for Research and Innovation, BGSIT Campus, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagara, Mandya District, Karnataka 571448



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