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Potential Cytokine Biomarkers in Intellectual Disability

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Yousra Benmakhlouf, Zeineb Zian*, Naima G. Nourouti, Amina Barakat and Mohcine B. Mechita   Pages 569 - 576 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Intellectual disability (ID), previously called mental retardation, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by life-long intellectual and adaptive functioning impairments that have an impact on individuals, families, and society. Its prevalence is estimated to 3% of the general population and its etiology is still insufficiently understood. Besides the involvement of genetic and environmental factors, immunological dysfunctions have been also suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of ID. Over the years, immune biomarkers related to ID have gained significant attention and researchers have begun to look at possible cytokine profiles in individuals suffered from this disorder. In fact, in addition to playing crucial physiological roles in the majority of normal neurodevelopmental processes, cytokines exert an important role in neuroinflammation under pathological conditions, and interactions between the immune system and central nervous system have long been under investigation. Cytokine levels imbalance has been reported associated with some behavioral characteristics and the onset of some syndromic forms of ID.

In this review, we will focus on immunological biomarkers, especially the cytokine profiles that have been identified in people with ID. Thus, data reported and discussed in the present paper may provide additional information to start further studies and to plan strategies for early identification and managing of ID.

Keywords:

Chemokines, cytokines, intellectual disability, mental retardation, neurodevelopmental disorder, neuroinflammation.

Affiliation:

Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan

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