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Exercise and Stevia Rebaudiana (R) Extracts Attenuate Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats: Possible Underlying Mechanisms

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Abdelaziz M. Hussein*, Elsayed A. Eid, Ismaeel Bin-Jaliah, Medhat Taha and Lashin S. Lashin   Pages 1117 - 1132 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Background and Aims: In the current work, we studied the effects of exercise and stevia rebaudiana (R) extracts on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in type 2 diabetic rats and their possible underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups; a) normal control group, b) DM group, type 2 diabetic rats received 2 ml oral saline daily for 4 weeks, c) DM+ Exercise, type 2 diabetic rats were treated with exercise for 4 weeks and d) DM+ stevia R extracts: type 2 diabetic rats received methanolic stevia R extracts. By the end of the experiment, serum blood glucose, HOMA-IR, insulin and cardiac enzymes (LDH, CK-MB), cardiac histopathology, oxidative stress markers (MDA, GSH and CAT), myocardial fibrosis by Masson trichrome, the expression of p53, caspase-3, α-SMA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by immunostaining in myocardial tissues were measured.

Results: T2DM caused a significant increase in blood glucose, HOMA-IR index, serum CK-MB and LDH, myocardial damage and fibrosis, myocardial MDA, myocardial α-SMA, p53, caspase-3, Nrf2 and TH density with a significant decrease in serum insulin and myocardial GSH and CAT (p< 0.05). On the other hand, treatment with either exercise or stevia R extracts significantly improved all studied parameters (p< 0.05). Moreover, the effects of stevia R was more significant than exercise (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: Both exercise and methanolic stevia R extracts showed cardioprotective effects against DCM and Stevia R offered more cardioprotective than exercise. This cardioprotective effect of these lines of treatment might be due to attenuation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, sympathetic nerve density and fibrosis and upregulation of the antioxidant transcription factor, Nrf2.

Keywords:

Type 2 DM, cardiomyopathy, oxidative stress, nrf2, α-SMA, p53, caspase-3, tyrosine hydroxylase, exercise, stevia.

Affiliation:

Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura



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