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Immune-Inflammation in Atherosclerosis: A New Twist in an Old Tale

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Atefe Ghamar Talepoor, Hamed Fouladseresht, Shahdad Khosropanah and Mehrnoosh Doroudchi*   Pages 525 - 545 ( 21 )

Abstract:


Background and Objective: Atherosclerosis, a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease, is triggered by the activation of endothelial cells followed by infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells including monocytes and T cells in arterial walls. Major populations of T cells found in human atherosclerotic lesions are antigen-specific activated CD4+ effectors and/or memory T cells from Th1, Th17, Th2 and Treg subsets. In this review, we will discuss the significance of T cell orchestrated immune inflammation in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

Discussion: Pathogen/oxidative stress/lipid induced primary endothelial wound cannot develop to a full-blown atherosclerotic lesion in the absence of chronically induced inflammation. While the primary inflammatory response might be viewed as a lone innate response, the persistence of such a profound response over time must be (and is) associated with diverse local and systemic T cell responses. The interplay between T cells and innate cells contributes to a phenomenon called immuneinflammation and has an impact on the progression and outcome of the lesion. In recent years immuneinflammation, an old term, has had a comeback in connecting the puzzle pieces of chronic inflammatory diseases.

Conclusion: Taking one-step back and looking from afar at the players of immune-inflammation may help us provide a broader perspective of these complicated interactions. This may lead to the identification of new drug targets and the development of new therapies as well as preventative measures.

Keywords:

Atherosclerosis, immune-inflammation, innate cells, T cells, cytokines, therapeutic targets.

Affiliation:

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz

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