Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Gender-Dependent Association of Vitamin D Deficiency with Obesity and Hypercholesterolemia (LDLC) in Adults

Author(s):

Norah Almesri, Nagalla S Das, Muhallab E. Ali, Khalid Gumaa and Hayder A. Giha*   Pages 1 - 12 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Introduction: Obesity, dyslipidemia and vitamin D deficiency are growing health problems in the Arabian Gulf region, their association with each other is yet to be clarified.

Materials and methods: 314 Bahraini adults, 164 males and 150 females comparable in median age (34.5 vs. 31.0 Yrs), body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were recruited. Plasma level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay and of lipid profile parameters by automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Based on BMI, study subjects were grouped into; underweight, normal, overweight, moderate obesity, and severe obesity.

Results: The results revealed extremely high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (79.9%) and insufficiency (18.8%). The predictors of low 25OHD3 level were female gender, small age, conservative dressing, least exposure to sunlight, and less fish intake. In all subjects the lowest 25OHD3 level was seen in underweight and severe obesity. Furthermore, the 25OHD3 level was significantly higher in males compared to females and it was positively correlated with the age. However, detailed analysis showed that overweight males unlike females, had the highest 25OHD3 levels which was significantly higher than in the severely obese males. While the lipid profile parameters were positively correlated with BMI, the total and LDL cholesterols were negatively correlated with the levels of 25OHD3 in males.

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with both severe obesity and with underweight, in the former it was likely to be institutional while in the latter it was likely to be nutritional. Furthermore, hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C) was associated with 25OHD3 sub-normality. Further analysis revealed that the significant associations were gender dependent.

Keywords:

Vitamin D, obesity, gender, BMI, hypercholesterolemia, Bahrain

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University (AGU), Manama, 2 Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC), Manama, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University (AGU), Manama, Division of Biosciences - Cell & Developmental Biology, University College London (UCL), London, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University (AGU), Manama



Read Full-Text article