Kaiser Un Nisa and Mohammad Irshad Reza* Pages 506 - 517 ( 12 )
Background & Objective: Significant health and social burdens have been created by the growth of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), atherosclerosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, worldwide. The number of the affected population is as yet rising, and it is assessed that until 2030, 4−5 million individuals will acquire diabetes. A blend of environmental, genetic, epigenetic, and other factors, such as diet, are accountable for the initiation and progression of metabolic disorders. Several researches have shown strong relevance of adiponectin gene and metabolic disorders. In this review, the potential influence of epigenetic mechanisms of adiponectin gene “ADIPOQ” on increasing the risk of developing metabolic disorders and their potential in treating this major disorder are discussed.
Results & Conclusion: Various studies have postulated that a series of factors such as maternal High fat diet (HFD), oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory mediators, sleep fragmentation throughout lifetime, from gestation to old age, could accumulate epigenetic marks, including histone remodeling, DNA methylation, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that, in turn, alter the expression of ADIPOQ gene and result in hypoadiponectinemia which precipitates insulin resistance (IR) that in turn might induce or accelerate the onset and development of metabolic disorder. A better understanding of global patterns of epigenetic modifications and further their alterations in metabolic disorders will bestow better treatment strategies design.
Epigenetic modification, adiponectin, metabolic disorders, DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNA.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, SAS Nagar, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, SAS Nagar