Dina Johar*, Sara M. Ahmed, Samer El. Hayek, Nader Al-Dewik, Eshak I. Bahbah, Nabil H. Omar, Mahmoud Mustafa, Doaa O. Salman, Asmaa Fahmey, Mohamed Mottawea, Rasha A. M. Azouz and Larry Bernstein Pages 732 - 743 ( 12 )
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multisystemic disease involving the homeostasis of insulin secretion by the pancreatic islet beta cells (β-cells). It is associated with hypertension, renal disease, and arterial and arteriolar vascular diseases.
Discussion: The classification of diabetes is identified as type 1 (gene linked β-cell destruction in childhood) and type 2 (late onset associated with β-cell overload and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 diabetes by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. The former is a genetically programmed loss of insulin secretion whereas the latter constitutes a disruption of the homeostatic relationship between the opposing activity of β- cell insulin and alpha cell (α-cell) glucagon of the Islets of Langerhans. The condition could also occur in pregnancy, as a prenatal occurring event, possibly triggered by the hormonal changes of pregnancy combined with β-cell overload. This review discusses the molecular basis of the biomolecular changes that occur with respect to glucose homeostasis and related diseases in DM. The underlying link between pancreatic, renal, and microvascular diseases in DM is based on oxidative stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR).
Conclusion: Studying proteome changes in diabetes can deepen our understanding of the biomolecular basis of disease and help us acquire more efficient therapies.
Diabetes mellitus, proteome, organogenesis, stress signaling; unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Biomedical Science Program, University of Science and Technology, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Qatar Medical Genetic Center, Pediatrics Department, Hamad General Hospital (HGH), Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar and Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Damietta, P.C. 34511, Pharmacy Department, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Genetics Unit, Histology and Cell biology department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Mansoura University, Al-Mansoura, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo, Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Giza, Triplex Consulting, 54 Firethorn Lane, Northampton, MA 01060