Dario Grande, Paola Terlizzese, Margherita I. Gioia, Giuseppe Parisi, Vito A. Giagulli, Vincenzo Triggiani and Massimo Iacoviello* Pages 605 - 621 ( 17 )
Background and Objective: Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a significant economic burden, which is expected to increase in the next years. Alongside the management of cardiac manifestations and major risk factors for atherosclerosis, great attention has been paid to the role of comorbidities in initiating and worsening cardiac conditions.Discussion: The cardiovascular impact of a broad spectrum of endocrine disorders has been evaluated, with particular regard to their effects on cardiac function and cardiovascular prognosis in affected patients. Among the different endocrine conditions considered, the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular events is still uncertain. A number of observational studies have linked subclinical hypothyroidism (in particular severe elevation of TSH levels) with incident cardiovascular disease and poor prognosis, however thyroid replacement therapy is still controversial, especially in the elderly, due to the lack of evidence coming from randomized controlled trials. With regards to testosterone deficiency, even though it has been associated with metabolic abnormalities and poor prognosis in patients affected by cardiovascular diseases, the cardiac safety of replacement therapy has still to be completely clarified. Similarly, growth hormone deficiency showed detrimental effects on cardiovascular events and risk factors which seem to be reverted by replacement therapy, even if unequivocal evidence from randomized clinical trials is still lacking Another relevant chapter in cardiovascular disease management is about the cardiovascular outcomes of diabetes medical treatments. In recent years, a growing interest has been developed around the cardiovascular safety of antidiabetic medications which has led to a great number of publications addressing this issue for the different classes of antidiabetic drugs. Interestingly, the recently approved classes, i.e. incretins and SGLT-2 inhibitors, have additionally demonstrated a protective effect against major cardiovascular events, shedding new light on the management of diabetes in patients affected by cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Important controversies still exist regarding the cardiac implic ations of the therapies adopted in endocrine diseases. Owing the large prevalence of these conditions, particularly in the cardiovascular population, further research is awaited in order to clarify the potential advantage and the possible cardiac risk related to treatment of the endocrine comorbidities.
Comorbidities, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, testosterone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency.
School of Cardiology, University of Bari “A. Moro”, Bari, Division of Cardiology, Cliniche Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, School of Cardiology, University of Bari “A. Moro”, Bari, School of Cardiology, University of Bari “A. Moro”, Bari, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, University of Bari “A. Moro”, Bari, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases, University of Bari “A. Moro”, Bari, Cardiology Unit, Cardiothoracic Department, Policlinic University Hospital, Bari