Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Vigilance States: Central Neural Pathways, Neurotransmitters and Neurohormones

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Michele Iovino, Tullio Messana, Giovanni De Pergola, Emanuela Iovino, Edoardo Guastamacchia, Vito Angelo Giagulli and Vincenzo Triggiani*   Pages 26 - 37 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background and Objective: The sleep-wake cycle is characterized by a circadian rhythm involving neurotransmitters and neurohormones that are released from brainstem nuclei and hypothalamus. The aim of this review is to analyze the role played by central neural pathways, neurotransmitters and neurohormones in the regulation of vigilance states.

Method: We analyzed the literature identifying relevant articles dealing with central neural pathways, neurotransmitters and neurohormones involved in the control of wakefulness and sleep.

Results: The reticular activating system is the key center in the control of the states of wakefulness and sleep via alertness and hypnogenic centers. Neurotransmitters and neurohormones interplay during the dark-light cycle in order to maintain a normal plasmatic concentration of ions, proteins and peripheral hormones, and behavioral state control.

Conclusion: An updated description of pathways, neurotransmitters and neurohormones involved in the regulation of vigilance states has been depicted.

Keywords:

Vigilance states, sleep-wake cycle, reticular activating system, EEG, locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei, suprachiasmatic nucleus, neurotransmitters, neurohormones.

Affiliation:

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases. University of Bari , Infantile Neuropsychiatry, IRCCS – Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna, Clinical Nutrition Unit, Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Oncology, University of Bari, School of Medicine, Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases. University of Bari , Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases. University of Bari , Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases. University of Bari , Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases. University of Bari

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article