Ana Sofia Figueiredo and Patricia Andrea-Ferreira* Pages 555 - 564 ( 10 )
Background and Objective: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare, but represents the deadliest type of thyroid cancer that is characterised by a rapid course. Diagnosis is usually made at a late stage, when more than half of the patients have distant metastasis. Our main purpose is to review the current information on anaplastic thyroid aetiology and risk factors that might contribute to an earlier diagnosis as well as to give new perspectives regarding the most recent treatment options and future directions.
Results: The treatment options are mainly palliative and lack efficacy. In particular, the multikinase inhibitors, BRAF inhibitors and other directed agents aim to stabilize the tumour growth and might enable a radical surgery with curative intent.
Conclusion: With the mutational landscape investigation and the discovery of new targets, new directed treatments are being tried. Considering the current tendency to be more conservative regarding the multinodular goiter approach and some differentiated thyroid carcinomas treatment, it is vital to understand that it might evolve to anaplastic cancers.
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, aetiology, prognostic factors, risk factors, treatment, new approaches.
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Department of General Surgery, Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto