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Vitamin D status in coronary artery disease: association with IL-35 and TGF-β1 and disease severity

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 5 ]


Fereshteh Rasa, Nadereh Naderi, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Elahe Mansoori and Mahsa Rahimzadeh*   Pages 522 - 529 ( 8 )


Background: The exact mechanisms underlying the protective effect of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease are obscure.

Objective: Here, we have addressed the relation between vitamin D status and regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibitory cytokines in patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD).

Materials and methods: 81 patients were divided into single (n= 20), double (n=20) and triple (n=20) vessel disease groups and compared to no vessel disease (No VD) group (n=21). Interleukin (IL) -35 and TGF- β1 were measured using ELISA. Vitamin D was measured using Electrochemiluminescence assay.

Results: Vitamin D, TGF-β1 and IL-35 concentrations in No VD (32.4±15.2, 667.7±427.6, 12.1±11.9 respectively) group were significantly higher than patients with 1 or more vessel disease (18.1±9.8, 360.4±354.1 and 6.8±8.1 respectively, p<0.05). Subgroup analysis revealed that TGF-β1 and IL-35 (but not vitamin D) were significantly higher in double vessel disease patients (591.9±465.7 and 9.2±8.0 respectively) compared to those with triple vessel disease (173.1±163.3 and 3.6±1.4 respectively, p<0.05). Both TGF-β1 and IL-35 were positively correlated to the serum level of vitamin D (r= 0.38, p= 0.001 and r=0.26, p= 0.028 respectively). Vitamin D, TGF-β1 and IL-35 revealed a negative correlation (r= -0.36, r=-0.46 and r-0.024 respectively) with severity of CAD (p< 0.05). Compared to normal serum vitamin D patients (326.6±351.7 pg/mL vs. 754.5±560 pg/mL, p=0.036 respectively) β1 (but not IL-35), was significantly lower in vitamin D deficient patients.

Conclusion: The results suggested that, although decreased TGF-β1 and IL-35 plasma levels correlate positively with decreased vitamin D levels and negatively with severity of CAD, but only TGF-β1 has a significant association with vitamin D deficiency in CAD patients. It seems that the antiatherosclerotic effect of vitamin D is at least partly attributed to the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines especially TGF-β1


TGF-β, IL-35, coronary artery disease, vitamin D


Department of Biochemistry, Callege of Science, Fars Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Fars, Food health research center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Molecular Medicine Research Center, Health institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas

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