Walter Milano*, Chiara Colletti and Anna Capasso* Pages 38 - 55 ( 18 )
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric diseases with a significant impact on the psychosocial functioning of the patients. People with schizophrenia are at risk to die prematurely because of their illness with their poor lifestyle contributing to the excess morbidity and higher mortality rate. In particular, lifestyle (e.g. poor diet, low rates of physical activity and increased likelihood to smoke cigarettes) predisposes them to poor physical health and comorbid medical diseases. In addition, the treatment of schizophrenia usually involves the long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs and some of these medications are implicated in the increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular effects.The antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia was ascertained for the first time by Kleinberg in 1971 and was considered for this treatment. Antipsychotics are the most common pharmacological agents which cause hyperprolactinemia The aim of this review is to describe PRL physiology, PRL biological effects and pathway to the diagnosis, causes, consequences of HPRL focusing on the antipsychotic effects on the PRL. We conducted a review of studies published between 1974 and December 2014. The search was performed using the following PubMed search terms: “Hyperprolactinemia” and “antipsychotic” and 827 papers were detected. The articles were examined and the overlapping or insufficiently clear works were excluded. Finally we chose 104 titles. We added to the selected articles additional articles, including 28 articles regarding the latest international guidelines, the pathophysiology of hyperprolactinemia and the various therapeutic choices.
Antipsychotics, metabolism, neuroendocrine system, prolactin, schizophrenia, hyperprolactinemia.
Unità Operativa di Salute Mentale Distretto 24 ASL Napoli 1 Centro, Residenza dei Pini Terracina (LT), Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Salerno, Fisciano SA