Duygu Kocyigit, Kadri Murat Gurses, Muhammed Ulvi Yalcin and Lale Tokgozoglu Pages 19 - 31 ( 13 )
Type 2 diabetic patients are known to have a tendency to develop cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), and related unfavourable outcomes such as heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular events (e.g. stroke), and related mortality. Long- term clinical trials have revealed contradictory findings regarding the relationship between glycemic control and CV benefits due to variations in the key characteristics of the study population. During the last decade, number of pharmacological agents used for glucose- lowering in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased owing to the introduction of dipeptidyl peptidase- IV (DPP- IV) inhibitors, glucagon- like peptide- 1 (GLP- 1) receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT- 2) inhibitors. This review aims to focus on the mechanisms of action of these drugs in the cardiovascular system and the trials evaluating their impact on CVD. Furthermore, trials in the last decade evaluating the impact of traditional glucose- lowering drugs on CVD are included. For this purpose, we searched PubMed for articles in English using the search terms “type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucose- lowering drugs, antidiabetic medications, cardiovascular, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular system” between inception to September 2016. We also searched separately for each medication in addition to the keyword “cardiovascular disease” on PubMed. To identify further articles, we hand searched related citations in review articles and commentaries.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, glucose-lowering drugs, cardiovascular, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.
Department of Cardiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara, Cardiology Clinics, Konya Training and Research Hospital, 42090, Meram Konya, Department of Cardiology, Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine, 42075 Selcuklu Konya, Department of Cardiology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara